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BIO120H1 Adaptation and Biodiversity

Principles and concepts of evolution and ecology related to origins of adaptation and biodiversity. Mechanisms and processes driving biological diversification illustrated from various perspectives using empirical and theoretical approaches. Topics include: genetic diversity, natural selection, speciation, physiological, population, and community ecology, maintenance of species diversity,...

Grade 12 Biology or equivalent. Students without high school Biology must consult the BIO120 Office (

BIO220H1 From Genomes to Ecosystems in a Changing World

Dynamics of genetic and ecological change in biological systems, from genomes to ecosystems. Evolutionary genetic and ecological perspectives on wide-ranging topics including disease, aging, sexual conflict, genetics of human differences, conservation, and global climate change. Applications of evolutionary, ecological, and molecular-genetic principles and processes. Responsibilities of human...


BIO251H1 Form, Function and Development in Plants

Introduction to structure, function, and ecology of vegetative and reproductive processes in plants with a focus on flowering plants and gymnosperms. Lectures and labs emphasize photosynthesis, respiration, mineral nutrition, transport processes, patterns of plant growth and development, the role of hormones in development, photomorphogenesis, and plant reproduction. (Lab Materials Fee: $25...


EEB202H1 Plants and Society

The importance of plants to society. Topics include: plant biology, domestication of crop plants, plant breeding and genetic engineering, biological invasions, conservation, biodiversity and genetic resources, ecological implications of advances in modern plant science, macroevolution of plants, forest utilization. For non-science students in all years and disciplines.


EEB208H1 Ecosystems and the Human Footprint

An introduction to the diversity of Earth’s aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs, lakes, tropical rainforests); the history of industrialization and human population growth; how the human footprint impacts ecosystems (e.g., ecosystem function, biological diversity); and strategies to maintain, recover and restore ecosystems. This is a course for non-science students in all...

BIO120H1, ENV200H1

EEB214H1 Evolution and Adaptation

Evolution and adaptation of life on Earth. Introduction to the theory of evolution by natural selection. Topics may include: evidence supporting the fact of evolution, and how evolutionary theory can help explain the world around us, such as how species are formed, and the evolution of sex, infanticide, and disease. For non-science students in all years and disciplines.


EEB215H1 Conservation Biology

Introduction to the scientific discipline that deals with threatened species and habitats. Topics include: biodiversity, extinction, threats, demography, genetic diversity, protecting, managing and restoring ecosystems (e.g., nature reserves, captive breeding, conservation corridors), sustainable development, and global warming. Ties between the study of conservation biology and environmental...


EEB225H1 Biostatistics for Biological Sciences

A statistics course designed especially for life science students, using examples from ecology and evolution where appropriate. Students learn to choose and use statistics that are appropriate to address relevant biological questions and hypotheses. Lectures and computer labs will be used to cover the following methods: sampling and experimental design, data exploration, correlation,...


BIO225H1/​ ECO220Y1/​ ECO227Y1/​ GGR270H1/​ HMB325H1/​ PCL376H1/​ PSY201H1/​ SOC300Y1/​ STA220H1/​ STA250H1/​ STA288H1

EEB255H1 Essentials of Biodiversity Science and Conservation Biology

“Classical” and “new” concepts in biodiversity and conservation. Topics may include: evolution and ecology in the past (Holocene) and future (Anthropocene); levels and kinds of biodiversity; valuing biodiversity through ecological economics; causes of endangerment; predicting extinction; genetic and demographic theory; habitat protection and captive breeding; conservation policies and...


EEB263H1 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

The ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate structure are considered within the context of evolutionary theory. Functional aspects of the various organ systems are examined. Representative vertebrates are analyzed (with brief dissection of some forms) in laboratory to illustrate selected anatomical features and to provide practical exposure to vertebrate construction. (Lab Materials Fee: $25)