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BIO120H1 Adaptation and Biodiversity

Principles and concepts of evolution and ecology related to origins of adaptation and biodiversity. Mechanisms and processes driving biological diversification illustrated from various perspectives using empirical and theoretical approaches. Topics include: genetic diversity, natural selection, speciation, physiological, population, and community ecology, maintenance of species diversity,...

Grade 12 Biology or equivalent. Students without high school Biology must consult the BIO120 Office (

BIO220H1 From Genomes to Ecosystems in a Changing World

Dynamics of genetic and ecological change in biological systems, from genomes to ecosystems. Evolutionary genetic and ecological perspectives on wide-ranging topics including disease, aging, sexual conflict, genetics of human differences, conservation, and global climate change. Applications of evolutionary, ecological, and molecular-genetic principles and processes. Responsibilities of human...


BIO251H1 Form, Function and Development in Plants

Introduction to structure, function, and ecology of vegetative and reproductive processes in plants with a focus on flowering plants and gymnosperms. Lectures and labs emphasize photosynthesis, respiration, mineral nutrition, transport processes, patterns of plant growth and development, the role of hormones in development, photomorphogenesis, and plant reproduction. (Lab Materials Fee: $25...


EEB197H1 Biodiversity and the City

Most of us are urban creatures, but we as people are not the only urban creatures. In this seminar we will explore the diversity of animal and plant species comprising the ecological community that we call “Toronto”. We will learn their names, whether they are endemic (from here originally) or newcomers, general aspects of their biology that suit them to living in an urban environment, how...

EEB198H1 Genes and Behaviour

In this course you will experience the new paradigm in behaviour genetic research. You will learn why the concept of a nature-nurture dichotomy is passé and that it has been replaced by a new understanding gained from animal and human research in the areas of gene by environment interaction and epigenetics. We will discuss how our genome listens to our environment and the effect this has on...

EEB199H1 Humans, Evolution and Ecology

Learn about the evolution and ecology of humans and other species. Through discussion, scientific literature research, seminal readings, written reports and presentations you will discover scientific answers to questions such as (topics vary among years): How did life originate? Why are there so many species? Where did humans come from? Will humans become extinct? How can we explain human DNA...

EEB202H1 Plants and Society

The importance of plants to society. Topics include: plant biology, domestication of crop plants, plant breeding and genetic engineering, biological invasions, conservation, biodiversity and genetic resources, ecological implications of advances in modern plant science, macroevolution of plants, forest utilization. For non-science students in all years and disciplines.


EEB208H1 Ecosystems and the Human Footprint

An introduction to the diversity of Earth’s aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs, lakes, tropical rainforests); the history of industrialization and human population growth; how the human footprint impacts ecosystems (e.g., ecosystem function, biological diversity); and strategies to maintain, recover and restore ecosystems. This is a course for non-science students in all...

BIO120H1, ENV200H1

EEB214H1 Evolution and Adaptation

Evolution and adaptation of life on Earth. Introduction to the theory of evolution by natural selection. Topics may include: evidence supporting the fact of evolution, and how evolutionary theory can help explain the world around us, such as how species are formed, and the evolution of sex, infanticide, and disease. For non-science students in all years and disciplines. For non-science...


EEB215H1 Conservation Biology

Introduction to the scientific discipline that deals with threatened species and habitats. Topics include: biodiversity, extinction, threats, demography, genetic diversity, protecting, managing and restoring ecosystems (e.g., nature reserves, captive breeding, conservation corridors), sustainable development, and global warming. Ties between the study of conservation biology and environmental...