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# Physics

### Faculty List

**Professor and Chair of the Department **

K. Strong, B Sc, D Phil, FRSC

**Professor and Associate Chair (Graduate Studies) **

Y-J. Kim, BS, Ph D

**Professor and Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies) **

P. Krieger, M Sc, Ph D

**University Professors (including cross-appointments)**

J.R. Bond, OC, MS, Ph D, FRSC, FRS

S. John, B Sc, Ph D, FRSC

R.J.D. Miller, R.J.D., B Sc, Ph D, FRSC

W.R. Peltier, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC

**Professors (including cross-appointments)**

J. Abbatt, MA, Ph D, FRSC

V. Barzda, M Sc, Ph D (UTM)

D.J. Donaldson, B Sc, Ph D

C. Gradinaru, Ph D (UTM)

D.F.V. James, BA, Ph D

D.B.A. Jones, AB, SM, Ph D

M.L.G. Joy, MA Sc, Ph D

S.R. Julian, B Sc, M Sc, Ph D

H-Y. Kee, MS, Ph D

Y-B. Kim, B Sc, M Sc, Ph D

P.J. Kushner, B Sc, M Sc, Ph D

H-K. Lo, Ph D

J. Lowman, B A, M Sc, Ph D (UTSC)

M. Luke, Ph D

G.W.K. Moore, B Sc, Ph D (UTM)

S.W. Morris, B Sc, M Sc, Ph D

N. Murray, Ph D

B. Netterfield, BS, Ph D

R.S. Orr, B Sc, Ph D, FRSC

A. Paramekanti, B Tech, Ph D

A.W. Peet, B Sc, Ph D

U-L. Pen, M Sc, Ph D

E. Poppitz, Ph D

R. Pysklywec, M Sc, Ph D

J. Repka, B Sc, Ph D

P. Savard, M Sc, Ph D

D. Segal, B Sc, Ph D

P.K. Sinervo, B Sc, Ph D, FRSC, CM

J.E. Sipe, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC (T)

A.M. Steinberg, MA, Ph D, FRSC

R. Teuscher, M Sc, Ph D

A.C. Thompson, BS, Ph D, FRSC

J. Thywissen, MS, Ph D

W. Trischuk, B Sc, Ph D

K. Walker, B Sc, Ph D

R.P. Young, Ph D

**Associate Professors (including cross-appointments)**

D.C. Bailey, B Sc, Ph D

A-A. Dhirani, B Sc, Ph D

R. Ghent, Ph D

Q. Liu, B Sc, Ph D

R.S. Marjoribanks, MS, Ph D

D. McMillen, B Sc, M Sc, Ph D (UTM)

K. Menou, Ph D (UTSC)

J.N. Milstein, BS, Ph D (UTM)

H. Rein, Ph D (UTSC)

W. Ryu, AB, Ph D

K. Vanderlinde, B Sc, Ph D

J.T. Wei, MS, Ph D

M. Wells, B Sc, Ph D (UTSC)

A. Zilman, B Sc, M Sc, Ph D

**Associate Professors, Teaching Stream **

V.B. Deyirmenjian, B Sc, Ph D

J. Harlow, B Sc, Ph D

R.M. Serbanescu, M Sc, Ph D

**Assistant Professors (including cross-appointments)**

D. Curtin, Ph D

M. Diamond, Ph D

S. Goyal, B Tech, M Sc, Ph D

N. Grisouard, B S, M S, Ph D

A. Hilfinger, Ph D (UTM)

N. Ilic, Ph D

C. Lee, Ph D

S. Rauscher, Ph D (UTM)

T. Scaffidi, D Phil

Z. Su, Ph D

D. Valencia, Ph D (UTSC)

A. Vutha, Ph D

D. Wunch, Ph D

L. Yang, BS, MA, Ph D

**Part-Time Lecturers **

B. Wilson, Ph D

**University Professor Emeritus **

A.E. Litherland, B Sc, Ph D, FRSC, FRS

**Professors Emeriti **

R.L. Armstrong, MA, Ph D, FRSC

R. C. Bailey, B.Sc., Ph.D.

R.F. Code, AM, Ph D (UTM)

R.C. Desai, B Sc, Ph D

T.E. Drake, M Sc, Ph D

J.R. Drummond, MA, D Phil, FRSC

D.J. Dunlop, MA, Ph D, FRSC (UTM)

C. Dyer, Ph D

R. N. Edwards, BSc, Ph.D., C Phys, F Inst P

R.M. Farquhar, MA, Ph D, FRSC (UTM)

G.M. Graham, M Sc, Ph D

R. Holdom, MA, Ph D

A.W. Key, MA, D Phil (I)

J.D. King, BA, D Phil (UTSC)

P.P. Kronberg, M Sc, Ph D, D Sc

R.K. Logan, B Sc, Ph D (N)

J. Martin, B.Sc, D. Phil

A.D. May, MA, Ph D

B. Milkereit, M Sc, Ph D

J.W. Moffat, Ph D, D Sc

K.H. Norwich, M Sc, MD, Ph D

D.A.L. Paul, BA, Ph D

J.M. Perz, MA Sc, Ph D (UTSC)

D.J. Rowe, MA, D Phil, FRSC

H.M. van Driel, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC

G.F. West, MA, Ph D, FRSC

S.S.M. Wong, M Sc, Ph D

T.S. Yoon, M Sc, Ph D

**Senior Lecturer Emeritus **

D. Harrison, B Sc, Ph D

## Introduction

Physics forms the bedrock of our understanding of Nature. Any physical object or process, or even the structure of the whole universe itself, can be the subject of physics. Physicists study an extremely diverse array of systems, from the simplest subatomic particles to the most complex processes found in biological cells or in the Earth’s climate. Physics provides a comprehensive set of fundamental tools that can be brought to bear on many problems across a wide variety of fields.

Students can choose between Specialist Programs in Physics or Physics combined with numerous other sciences, as well as Philosophy. In addition, the Physics Major and Minor programs give the student the option of mixing Physics with the nearly limitless array of science and non-science programs available across the University. As well, students have the opportunity to do original research and to undertake independent supervised studies for course credit.

A program in physics has much to offer. Beyond the traditional careers of teaching and research, a knowledge of physics is a powerful asset in professions like Medicine or Law, or for careers involving the environmental, geological or biological sciences. An understanding of physics is essential for those who are concerned about how society is affected by climate change or advanced technology. The conceptual problem-solving tools one acquires as a physicist can be applied with great success to many occupations.

The Physics Specialist Program offers intensive training in all aspects of physics. Courses can be selected in order to emphasize the experimental, theoretical or applied sides of physics. In fourth year, students intending to undertake graduate studies are encouraged to take advanced optional courses. These courses, which reflect the excellence and research diversity of the faculty, are offered in areas such as Relativity, High Energy Physics, Quantum Optics, Condensed Matter, Geophysics and Atmospheric Physics.

The Specialist Program in Biological Physics combines the analytical problem solving skills of the physicist with sound backgrounds in relevant biology and biochemistry. The interface between biology and physics lies at the forefront of the rapidly growing field of quantitative biology.

The Professional Experience Year Co-op program (“PEY Co-op”: see also https://engineeringcareers.utoronto.ca/) is available to eligible, full-time Arts & Science Specialist students after their second year of study. Physics students are encouraged to take advantage of this opportunity to apply their scientific and mathematical skills in a 12-16-month professional internship.

The Departmental website gives detailed information on programs and courses, and describes the operation of the Department and the counseling services available. All students, most particularly those entering first year, are strongly urged to consult the web site before term begins.

Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies):

Professor P. Krieger, Room 328, McLennan Physical Laboratories (416-978-6674);

Email address: ugchair@physics.utoronto.ca

Enquiries:

Undergraduate Office, Room 301, McLennan Physical Laboratories (416-978-7057)

Email address: ugcoord@physics.utoronto.ca

Website: https://www.physics.utoronto.ca/

### Physics Programs

### Biological Physics Specialist (Science Program)

**Description:**

The Biological Physics specialist program focuses on the physical principles that organize complex biological phenomena. How do cells use chemical energy to generate motion? How does diffusion limit the ability of cells to measure the concentration of chemicals? How do neurons transmit and process information? How does blood flow through a beating heart? Biological Physics deals with problems at the interface of Physics, Molecular Biology, and Physiology, and covers the full range of scales, from the molecular, to the organismic. Students in this program will be trained to think rigorously and quantitatively about a wide range of interdisciplinary problems, will be well prepared to work in a variety of fields such as medicine and biotechnology, and will be ready to undertake graduate work in the fast-emerging field of Biological Physics and its related specialties including Immunology, Physiology, Neuroscience, and Bioengineering.

The program is offered as a partnership between the Departments of Physics, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Immunology, and Physiology (referred to as "partner departments"). All students take the Core courses in Physics, Mathematics, Biology, Biochemistry, and Chemistry. The Core also includes a specialized course in Biological Physics ( PHY331H1) and a third-year laboratory course from one of the partner departments. Students then choose one of four Streams (below) consisting of additional courses from the partner departments.

### Biological Physics Specialist: Advanced Physics Stream (Science Program) - ASSPE2739

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

**Core Biological Physics Courses (11.5 FCE)**

First Year (3.0 FCE): ( CHM138H1/ CHM136H1, CHM139H1/ CHM135H1)/ CHM151Y1, ( MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1, PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1 ( PHY151H1, PHY152H1 recommended)

First or Second Year (1.0 FCE): BIO130H1, MAT223H1

Second Year (3.0 FCE): BCH210H1, ( MAT235Y1/ MAT237Y1), MAT244H1, PHY250H1, PHY252H1

Second or Third Year (0.5 FCE): BIO230H1/ BIO255H1

Third Year (2.0 FCE): PHY224H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1, PHY354H1

Third or Fourth Year (2.0 FCE):

1. PHY331H1

2. PHY324H1/ BCH370H1/ CHM327H1/ PSL372H1

3. 1.0 FCE, including at least 0.5 FCE at the 400 level, from APM346H1/ MAT334H1/ MAT354H1/PHY-300 level courses/PHY-400 level courses.

**Additional Requirements for the Advanced Physics Stream (2.5 FCE):**

1. ( BCH311H1, BCH340H1)/( PSL300H1, PSL301H1)

2. PHY431H1 and 1.0 FCE from additional courses from APM346H1/ MAT334H1/ MAT354H1/PHY300-level courses /PHY 400-level courses/ JPE395H1/ JPE493H1

*Integrative, Inquiry-Based Activity Requirement*

The choices in the program must satisfy the requirement for an integrative, inquiry-based activity by including at least one of the following courses: IMM435H1, PHY371Y1, PHY372H1, PHY396Y0, PHY397Y0, PHY398H0, PHY399Y0, PHY407H1, PHY424H1, PHY426H1, PHY428H1, PHY429H1, PHY471Y1, PHY472H1, PHY478H1, PHY479Y1, PSL304H1, PSL305H1, and PSL372H1

**Notes:**

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in the independent project courses PHY478H1/ PHY479Y1. These students may be supervised by faculty in the Departments of Physics, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Immunology, and Physiology. Students are required to have a B average in the program courses, identify a supervisor, and consult the Associate Chair of Physics (Undergraduate Studies) before enrolling in PHY478H1/ PHY479Y1.

Students might wish to enroll in 300- and 400-level courses in the partner life science departments that are not listed above. These students will need approval to take these courses from the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies) prior to enrollment in the course.

### Biological Physics Specialist: Biochemistry Stream (Science Program) - ASSPE2737

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

**Core Biological Physics Courses (11.5 FCE):**

First Year (3.0 FCE): ( CHM138H1/ CHM136H1, CHM139H1/ CHM135H1)/ CHM151Y1, ( MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1, PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1 ( PHY151H1, PHY152H1 recommended)

First or Second Year (1.0 FCE): BIO130H1, MAT223H1

Second Year (3.0 FCE): BCH210H1, ( MAT235Y1/ MAT237Y1), MAT244H1, PHY250H1, PHY252H1

Second or Third Year (0.5 FCE): BIO230H1/ BIO255H1

Third Year (2.0 FCE): PHY224H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1, PHY354H1

Third or Fourth Year (2.0 FCE):

1. PHY331H1

2. PHY324H1/ BCH370H1/ CHM327H1/ PSL372H1

3. 1.0 FCE, including at least 0.5 FCE at the 400 level, from APM346H1/ MAT334H1/ MAT354H1/PHY-300 level courses/PHY-400 level courses.

**Additional Courses for the Biochemistry Stream (2.5 FCE):**

1. BCH311H1, BCH340H1

2. 1.5 FCE from BCH370H1/ CSB428H1/BCH400-level BCH courses. Excludes BCH472Y1, BCH473Y1, BCH478H1, BCH479H1

*Integrative, Inquiry-Based Activity Requirement*

The choices in the program must satisfy the requirement for an integrative, inquiry-based activity by including at least one of the following courses: IMM435H1, PHY371Y1, PHY372H1, PHY396Y0, PHY397Y0, PHY398H0, PHY399Y0, PHY407H1, PHY424H1, PHY426H1, PHY428H1, PHY429H1, PHY471Y1, PHY472H1, PHY478H1, PHY479Y1, PSL304H1, PSL305H1, and PSL372H1

**Notes:**

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in the independent project courses PHY478H1/ PHY479Y1. These students may be supervised by faculty in the Departments of Physics, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Immunology, and Physiology. Students are required to have a B average in the program courses, identify a supervisor, and consult the Associate Chair of Physics (Undergraduate Studies) before enrolling in PHY478H1/ PHY479Y1.

Students might wish to enroll in 300- and 400-level courses in the partner life science departments that are not listed above. These students will need approval to take these courses from the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies) prior to enrollment in the course.

On approval of the Department of Physics, students who take CHM222H1/ CHM225Y1 will not have to take PHY252H1.

### Biological Physics Specialist: Immunology Stream (Science Program) - ASSPE2740

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

**Core Biological Physics Courses (11.5 FCE)**

First Year (3.0 FCE): ( CHM138H1/ CHM136H1, CHM139H1/ CHM135H1) / CHM151Y1, ( MAT135H1, MAT136H1) / MAT137Y1, PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1 ( PHY151H1, PHY152H1 recommended)

First or Second Year (1.0 FCE): BIO130H1, MAT223H1

Second Year (3.0 FCE): BCH210H1, ( MAT235Y1/ MAT237Y1), MAT244H1, PHY250H1, PHY252H1

Second or Third Year (0.5 FCE): BIO230H1/ BIO255H1

Third Year (2.0 FCE): PHY224H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1, PHY354H1

Third or Fourth Year (2.0 FCE):

1. PHY331H1

2. PHY324H1/ BCH370H1/ CHM327H1/ PSL372H1

3. 1.0 FCE, including at least 0.5 FCE at the 400 level, from APM346H1/ MAT334H1/ MAT354H1/PHY-300 level courses/PHY-400 level courses.

**Additional Courses for the Immunology Stream (2.0 FCE):**

1. IMM341H1, IMM351H1 (Students in the Biological Physics Specialist Immunology Stream are permitted to take BIO230H1 as a co-requisite to IMM341H1, instead of as a prerequisite, by permission of the Department of Immunology)

2. 1.0 FCE from IMM400-level courses.

*Integrative, Inquiry-Based Activity Requirement*

The choices in the program must satisfy the requirement for an integrative, inquiry-based activity by including at least one of the following courses: IMM435H1, PHY371Y1, PHY372H1, PHY396Y0, PHY397Y0, PHY398H0, PHY399Y0, PHY407H1, PHY424H1, PHY426H1, PHY428H1, PHY429H1, PHY471Y1, PHY472H1, PHY478H1, PHY479Y1, PSL304H1, PSL305H1, and PSL372H1

Notes:

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in the independent project courses PHY478H1/ PHY479Y1. These students may be supervised by faculty in the Departments of Physics, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Immunology, and Physiology. Students are required to have a B average in the program courses, identify a supervisor, and consult the Associate Chair of Physics (Undergraduate Studies) before enrolling in PHY478H1/ PHY479Y1.

Students might wish to enroll in 300- and 400-level courses in the partner life science departments that are not listed above. These students will need approval to take these courses from the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies) prior to enrollment in the course.

On approval of the Department of Physics, students who take CHM222H1/ CHM225Y1 will not have to take PHY252H1.

### Biological Physics Specialist: Physiology Stream (Science Program) - ASSPE2738

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

**Core Biological Physics Courses (11.5 FCE):**

First Year (3.0 FCE): ( CHM138H1/ CHM136H1, CHM139H1/ CHM135H1)/ CHM151Y1, ( MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1, PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1 ( PHY151H1, PHY152H1 recommended)

First or Second Year (1.0 FCE): BIO130H1, MAT223H1

Second Year (3.0 FCE): BCH210H1, ( MAT235Y1/ MAT237Y1), MAT244H1, PHY250H1, PHY252H1

Second or Third Year (0.5FCE): BIO230H1/ BIO255H1

Third Year (2.0 FCE): PHY224H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1, PHY354H1

Third or Fourth Year (2.0 FCE):

1. PHY331H1

2. PHY324H1/ BCH370H1/ CHM327H1/ PSL372H1

3. 1.0 FCE, including at least 0.5 FCE at the 400 level, from APM346H1/ MAT334H1/ MAT354H1/PHY-300 level courses/PHY-400 level courses.

**Additional Courses for the Physiology Stream (2.5 FCE):**

1. PSL300H1, PSL301H1

2. 1.5 FCE, including at least 0.5 FCE at the 400 level, from PSL304H1/ PSL305H1/ PSL372H1/PSL400-level courses

*Integrative, Inquiry-Based Activity Requirement*

Notes:

On approval of the Department of Physics, students who take CHM222H1/ CHM225Y1 will not have to take PHY252H1.

### Physics and Philosophy Specialist (Science Program) - ASSPE2584

**Description:**

Physics has deep historical roots in natural philosophy and many aspects of contemporary Physics raise profound philosophical questions about the nature of reality. The interdisciplinary Physics and Philosophy Program allows the student to engage with both Physics and Philosophy at their deepest levels, and to more fully explore the connections between them.

Consult Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies), Department of Physics or Philosophy.

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

(15.0 full courses or their equivalent (FCE), including at least 1.5 FCE at the 400 level)

First Year: (2.5 FCE)

( MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1/ MAT157Y1, MAT223H1/ MAT240H1, PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1 (The courses MAT137Y1, MAT223H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1 are recommended.)

First or Second Year: (1.5 FCE)

1.5 FCE of: PHL232H1/ PHL233H1/ PHL240H1/ PHL245H1/ HPS250H1 ( PHL245H1 may only be counted here if MAT157Y1 is not taken)

Second Year: (3.0 FCE)

MAT237Y1/ MAT257Y1/ MAT235Y1, MAT244H1/ MAT267H1, PHY250H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1 (The courses MAT237Y1, MAT244H1 are recommended.)

Third Year: (2.0 FCE)

MAT334H1/ MAT354H1, PHY252H1, ( PHY350H1/ PHY354H1), PHY356H1

Fourth Year: (1.0 FCE)

Any Year: (5.0 FCE)

( PHL345H1/ PHL347H1), PHL355H1, PHL356H1, ( PHL415H1/ PHL482H1), plus 1.0 FCE of ( PHL325H1/ PHL331H1/ PHL332H1/ PHL346H1/ PHL357H1) plus 2.0 FCE additional PHL courses, at least 0.5 FCE of which must be from the Philosophy Value Theory Course Group (The courses PHL265H1, PHL275H1 are recommended.)

### Physics Specialist (Science Program) - ASSPE1944

**Description:**

The Physics Specialist Program offers rigorous training in the full spectrum of core physics subfields, as well as their numerous important applications. Practical courses treat the experimental and computational aspects and complement the lecture courses. Physics concerns many of the most fundamental questions in our scientific understanding of the universe. What is the nature of matter and energy at the smallest scales? What are the physical processes that govern the Earth’s climate? What is the nature of light and how can it be controlled? How do the collective properties of solids emerge from those of individual atoms? How do biological processes organize themselves to maintain their survival? What is the structure and evolution of the Earth and the other planets? How can quantum information be used for computation? Physics seeks answers to these questions using a combination of theory, computation and precise experimental work, and the results find application across all of science.

Consult the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies), Department of Physics.

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

(13.5 FCE, including at least one full course at the 400 level)

First Year: (2.5 FCE)

( MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1/ MAT157Y1, MAT223H1/ MAT240H1, PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1

(The courses MAT137Y1, MAT223H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1 are recommended.)

Second Year: (4.0 FCE)

MAT237Y1/ MAT257Y1/ MAT235Y1, MAT244H1/ MAT267H1, PHY224H1, PHY250H1, PHY252H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1

(The courses MAT237Y1, MAT244H1 are recommended.)

Second or Third Year: (0.5 FCE)

Third Year: (3.0 FCE)

1. APM346H1, MAT334H1/ MAT354H1, PHY350H1, PHY354H1, PHY356H1

2. Additional 0.5 FCE from PHY-300 level courses/PHY-400 level courses/ JPE395H1/ JPE493H1, excluding JPH311H1,

Third or Fourth Year: (3.5 FCE)

1. PHY424H1

2. 1.0 FCE from PHY450H1, PHY452H1, PHY454H1, PHY456H1, PHY460H1

3. PHY405H1/ PHY407H1/ PHY408H1/ PHY426H1/ PHY478H1. See Note 2.

4. 1.0 FCE, including at least 0.5 FCE at the PHY-400 level, from PHY-300 level courses/PHY-400 level courses/ JPE395H1/ JPE493H1, excluding JPH311H1, JPH441H1

5. Ethics and Social Responsibility Requirement: The Physics course JPH441H1 meets this requirement as well as any of the following courses: ETH201H1/ ETH210H1/ ETH220H1/ ETH230H1/ HPS200H1/ PHL233H1/ PHL265H1/ PHL273H1/ PHL275H1/ PHL281H1/ IMC200H1/ VIC172Y1/ ENV333H1. See Note 3.

Notes:

1. Students are encouraged but not required to enrol in the independent study and project courses such as PHY371Y1, PHY478H1, etc.

2. PHY479Y1 (Undergraduate Research Project) satisfies Requirement 3 in Third or Fourth Year and counts as 0.5 FCE at the PHY-400 level for Requirement 4 in Third or Fourth Year. Students may use MAT351Y1 instead of APM346H1 for Requirement 1 in Third Year.

3. Requirement 5 in Third or Fourth Year represents 0.5 FCE with a significant emphasis on "Ethics and Social Responsibility". Students may use the CR/NCR option towards any of the courses listed in Requirement 5. Another Arts & Science course with a significant emphasis on "Ethics and Social Responsibility" may be substituted subject to approval from the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies).

4. The requirement for an integrative, inquiry-based activity is satisfied by the required course PHY424H1.

### Physics Major (Science Program) - ASMAJ1944

**Description:**

A Physics Major program is appropriate for students interested in a more flexible and diverse undergraduate physics program. A Physics Major may be tailored to be a natural counterpart to a second Major in mathematics, astronomy, computer science, environmental science, geology or the life sciences. Students should consult the Associate Chairs (Undergraduate Studies) of Physics and the respective departments for advice on course selections.

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

(8.0 FCE including at least 2.0 FCE at the 300+ level, with at least 0.5 FCE at the 400 level)

First Year: (2.0 FCE)

( MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1/ MAT157Y1, PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1

Second Year: (3.0 FCE)

1. MAT235Y1/ MAT237Y1/ MAT257Y1, MAT223H1/ MAT240H1, PHY224H1

2. 1.0 FCE from PHY231H1, PHY331H1, PHY250H1, PHY252H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1

Third Year: (2.5 FCE)

1. MAT244H1/ MAT267H1, PHY324H1/ PHY405H1/ PHY407H1/ PHY408H1

2. 1.5 FCE, including at least 0.5 FCE at the PHY400 level, from APM346H1/ MAT334H1/ MAT354H1; PHY-300 level courses/PHY-400 level courses/ JPE395H1/ JPE493H1, excluding JPH311H1, JPH441H1

Third or Fourth Year: (0.5 FCE)

1. Ethics and Social Responsibility Requirement: The Physics course JPH441H1 meets this requirement as well as any of the following courses: ETH201H1/ ETH210H1/ ETH220H1/ ETH230H1/ HPS200H1/ PHL233H1/ PHL265H1/ PHL273H1/ PHL275H1/ PHL281H1/ IMC200H1/ VIC172Y1/ ENV333H1. See Note 2.

Notes:

1. Students in the Physics Major program who are intending to pursue graduate studies in Physics should consult with the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies).

2. Requirement 1 in Third or Fourth Year represents 0.5 FCE with a significant emphasis on "Ethics and Social Responsibility". Students may use the CR/NCR option towards any of the courses listed in Requirement 1. Another Arts & Science course with a significant emphasis on "Ethics and Social Responsibility" may be substituted subject to approval from the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies).

### Physics Minor (Science Program) - ASMIN1944

**Enrolment Requirements:**

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

**Completion Requirements:**

(4.0 FCE)

First Year: (1.0 FCE)

PHY131H1/ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/ PHY152H1

Second Year: (2.0 FCE)

1. PHY224H1

2. 1.5 FCE from PHY231H1, PHY250H1, PHY252H1, PHY254H1, PHY256H1

Third Year: (1.0 FCE)

1. PHY324H1/ PHY405H1/ PHY407H1/ PHY408H1

2. 0.5 FCE from: PHY-300 level course/PHY-400 level course/ JPE395H1/ JPE493H1, excluding JPH311H1, JPH441H1

### Regarding Physics Courses

**Note**

More detailed and current information on courses is available through the Physics Department website. Many course numbers have changed in recent years: check the course descriptions and exclusions below for course equivalencies. Pre- and co-requisites are strictly enforced and may only be waived in special circumstances. Students should consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies) with questions about pre- and co-requisites prior to the beginning of term if they are requesting a waiver. Students without the required pre- and co-requisites will be removed from courses.

## Physics Courses

### PHY100H1 - The Magic of Physics

**Hours:**24L/12T

This course provides a survey of Physics, including both Classical and Modern Physics. It is designed for non-scientists, and assumes no background in either science or mathematics. The approach to the course is broad rather than deep. We will concentrate on the concepts underlying such fascinating topics as planetary motion, chaos, the nature of light, time travel, black holes, matter waves, Schrodinger's cat, quarks, and climate change. We will uncover the wonders of the classical and the quantum worlds courtesy of Galileo, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, Heisenberg and many others.

(PHY100H1 is primarily intended as a Breadth Requirement course for students in the Humanities and Social Science)

**Exclusion:**PHY131H1/PHY132H1/PHY151H1/PHY152H1 taken previously or concurrently

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY131H1 - Introduction to Physics I

**Hours:**36L/20P

A first university physics course primarily for students not intending to pursue a Specialist or Major program in Physical or Mathematical Sciences. Topics include: classical kinematics & dynamics, momentum, energy, force, friction, work, power, angular momentum, oscillations, waves, sound.

**Corequisite:**MAT135H1/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1 recommended, but may be required prerequisite in 2nd year Physics courses

**Exclusion:**PHY151H1

**Recommended Preparation:**MCV4U Calculus & Vectors / MHF4U Functions & Calculus, SPH4U Physics

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY132H1 - Introduction to Physics II

**Hours:**36L/20P

The second university physics course primarily for students not intending to pursue a Specialist or Major program in Physical or Mathematical Sciences. Topics include: electricity, magnetism, light, optics, special relativity.

**Prerequisite:**PHY131H1/PHY151H1

**Corequisite:**MAT136H1/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1 recommended, but may be required prerequisite in 2nd year Physics courses

**Exclusion:**PHY152H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY151H1 - Foundations of Physics I

**Hours:**36L/30P

The first physics course in many of the Specialist and Major Programs in Physical Sciences. It provides an introduction to the concepts, approaches and tools the physicist uses to describe the physical world while laying the foundation for classical and modern mechanics. Topics include: mathematics of physics, energy, momentum, conservation laws, kinematics, dynamics, and special relativity.

**Prerequisite:**MCV4U Calculus & Vectors / MCB4U Functions & Calculus; SPH4U Physics

**Corequisite:**MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY131H1/PHY110Y1/PHY138Y1/PHY140Y1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY152H1 - Foundations of Physics II

**Hours:**36L/30P

The concept of fields will be introduced and discussed in the context of gravity and electricity. Topics include rotational motion, oscillations, waves, electricity and magnetism.

**Prerequisite:**PHY131H1/PHY151H1/PHY180H1

**Corequisite:**MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY132H1/PHY110Y1/PHY138Y1/PHY140Y1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY196H1 - Emergence in Nature

**Hours:**24S

The universe is not a rigid clockwork, but neither is it formless and random. Instead, it is filled with highly organized, evolved structures that have somehow emerged from simple rules of physics. Examples range from the structure of galaxies to the pattern of ripples on windblown sand, to biological and even social processes. These phenomena exist in spite of the universal tendency towards disorder. How is this possible? Self-organization challenges the usual reductionistic scientific method, and begs the question of whether we can ever really understand or predict truly complex systems. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR.

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY197H1 - Modern Physics for the Curious

**Hours:**24S

Have you wondered about the origin and workings of the natural world around us? Have you found physical science interesting but inaccessible because it was too full of math and jargon? Have you felt a pull to become more science-literate? If so, this seminar course is for you -- or for anyone interested in understanding more about the universe, including our planet, seen through the lens of modern physics. Ideas on the menu will include: particle physics, space and time, relativity, black holes, quantum physics, unification forces, string theory, and big bang cosmology. The intriguing story of these integrated phenomena unfolds over a wide distance and a long time. Students from diverse academic backgrounds are warmly welcome. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**No prior experience with physical science will be required, but familiarity with Grade 10 mathematics will be assumed.

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY198H1 - Physics at the Cutting Edge

**Previous Course Number:**PHY289H1

**Hours:**24L/12S

A limited enrollment seminar course for First Year Science students interested in current research in Physics. Students will meet active researchers studying the universe from the centre of the earth to the edge of the cosmos. Topics may range from string theory to experimental biological physics, from climate change to quantum computing, from superconductivity to earthquakes. The course may involve both individual and group work, essays and oral presentations. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**PHY151H1

**Corequisite:**PHY152H1, MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY199H1 - Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the New Black

**Hours:**24S

It is now 90 years since astronomers found the first evidence for a form of matter that wasn't part of the stars in our galaxies, but rather is "dark" and has a gravitational attraction to ordinary matter. Other lines of evidence lead us to believe that there is six times more dark matter than the ordinary matter we are familiar with. Despite this, we have no credible, direct evidence for what this dark matter might be. It is one of the biggest puzzles in particle physics and cosmology. In the last decade, we have also discovered that something else is going on – the universe appears to be filled with "dark energy" that causes the expansion of our universe to speed up instead of slowdown. We will discuss what we know about the hypotheses of dark matter and dark energy, and the debates about what might really be going on. Are we seeing science in crisis, with a revolution just around the corner, or is this just the "normal science" talked about by Kuhn and other philosophers of science? Participants will be expected to participate in seminar-style discussions, as well as take the lead on at least one topic of discussion. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY202H1 - The Physics of Science Fiction and Gaming

**Hours:**24L/12T

The physics of time travel, teleportation, levitation, invisibility, special effects, and other physics related topics found in literature, film, and gaming. The course will analyze the realism of physical phenomena in these media, and consider the impact of these concepts on science and society.

PHY202H1 is primarily intended as a Breadth Requirement course for students in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

**Exclusion:**PHY131H1/PHY132H1/PHY151H1/PHY152H1 taken previously or concurrently.

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY205H1 - The Physics of Everyday Life

**Hours:**24L/12T

An introduction to the physics of everyday life. This conceptual course looks at everyday objects to learn about the basis for our modern technological world. Topics may include anything from automobiles to weather.

PHY205H1 is primarily intended as a Breadth Requirement course for students in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

**Exclusion:**PHY131H1/PHY132H1/PHY151H1/PHY152H1 or equivalent, taken previously or concurrently

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY207H1 - The Physics of Music

**Hours:**24L/12T

An online course intended to provide non-science students with a basic understanding of the science behind sound and music. Topics include oscillations, waves, human hearing and perception of music, musical scales, musical instruments, recording and storing sound digitally, producing sound and broadcasting. Lectures will be delivered via the web and mandatory tutorials will require live webinar participation. The final exam will require attendance on the St. George campus.

**Exclusion:**PHY131H1/PHY132H1/PHY151H1/PHY152H1 or equivalent, taken previously or concurrently

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### IVP210H1 - Holography for 3D Visualization

**Hours:**24L/36P

An introduction to the theory and practice of holography. Human perception & 3D visualization; fundamentals of 3D modeling; ray and wave optics; interference, diffraction, coherence; transmission and reflection holograms; colour perception; stereograms. Applications of holography in art, medicine, and technology. Computer simulation, design, and construction of holograms.

**Exclusion:**JOP210H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY224H1 - Practical Physics I

**Hours:**72P

Develops the core practical experimental and computational skills necessary to do physics. Students tackle simple physics questions involving mathematical models, computational simulations and solutions, experimental measurements, data and uncertainty analysis.

**Prerequisite:**PHY132H1/PHY152H1, (MAT135H1,MAT136H1)/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Corequisite:**PHY231H1/PHY250H1/PHY252H1/PHY254H1/PHY256H1/ENV235H1

**Exclusion:**PHY225H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY231H1 - Physics of Living Systems

**Hours:**24L/18P

An introductory course for students interested in understanding the physical phenomena occurring in biological systems and the applications of physics in life sciences. Topics may include physical processes inside living cells and systems, medical physics and imaging.

**Prerequisite:**PHY132H1/PHY152H1,(MAT135H1,MAT136H1)/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY238YH1

**Recommended Preparation:**BIO130H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY250H1 - Electricity and Magnetism

**Hours:**24L/12T

An introductory course in Electromagnetism. Topics include: Point charges, Coulomb’s law, electrostatic field and potential, Gauss's Law, conductors, electrostatic energy, magnetostatics, Ampere's Law, Biot-Savart Law, the Lorentz Force Law, Faraday’s Law, Maxwell's equations in free space.

**Prerequisite:**PHY132H1/PHY152H1, (MAT135H1,MAT136H1)/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Corequisite:**MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY238Y1,PHY251H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY252H1 - Thermal Physics

**Hours:**24L/12T

The quantum statistical basis of macroscopic systems; definition of entropy in terms of the number of accessible states of a many particle system leading to simple expressions for absolute temperature, the canonical distribution, and the laws of thermodynamics. Specific effects of quantum statistics at high densities and low temperatures.

**Prerequisite:**PHY132H1/PHY152H1, (MAT135H1,MAT136H1)/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Corequisite:**MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY254H1 - Classical Mechanics

**Hours:**24L/12T

The course analyzes the linear, nonlinear and chaotic behaviour of classical mechanical systems such as harmonic oscillators, rotating bodies, and central field systems. The course will develop the analytical and numerical tools to solve such systems and determine their basic properties. The course will include mathematical analysis, numerical exercises using Python, and participatory demonstrations of mechanical systems.

**Prerequisite:**PHY132H1/PHY152H1 (PHY152H1 recommended), (MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Corequisite:**MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY255H1

**Recommended Preparation:**MAT244H1/MAT267H1, PHY224H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY256H1 - Introduction to Quantum Physics

**Hours:**24L/12T

Failures of classical physics; the Quantum revolution; Stern-Gerlach effect; harmonic oscillator; uncertainty principle; interference packets; scattering and tunneling in one-dimension.

**Prerequisite:**PHY132H1/PHY152H1, (MAT135H1,MAT136H1)/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1

**Corequisite:**MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1, (MAT223H1/MAT240H1 recommended)

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY299Y1 - Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities/research-opportunities-program. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

### JPH311H1 - From Universal Gravity to Quantum Information: The Making of Modern Physics

**Hours:**24L

Topics in the history of physics from antiquity to the 20th century, including Aristotelian physics, Galileo, Descartes, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, relativity, quantum physics, and particle physics. The development of theories in their intellectual and cultural contexts.

**Prerequisite:**At least one-half PHY course at university level

**Exclusion:**HPS311H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Humanities; Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY324H1 - Practical Physics II

**Hours:**72P

A modular practical course that further develops the core experimental and computational skills necessary to do physics. Modules include: experimental skills building, computational tools in data and uncertainty analysis, and independent experimental projects.

**Prerequisite:**PHY224H1

**Exclusion:**PHY225H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY331H1 - Introduction to Biological Physics

**Hours:**24L/18P

A course for students interested in a deeper understanding of physical phenomena occurring in biological systems. Thermodynamics, diffusion, entropic forces, fluids, biological applications.

**Prerequisite:**PHY252H1/CHM222H1/CHM225Y1, PHY231H1/PHY250H1/PHY254H1/PHY256H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY350H1 - Electromagnetic Theory

**Hours:**24L/12T

This course builds upon the knowledge and tools developed in PHY250H1. Topics include: solving Poisson and Laplace equations via method of images and separation of variables, multipole expansion for electrostatics, atomic dipoles and polarizability, polarization in dielectrics, multipole expansion in magnetostatics, magnetic dipoles, magnetization in matter, Maxwell’s equations in matter, conservation laws in electrodynamics, and electromagnetic waves.

**Prerequisite:**MAT223H1/MAT240H1, MAT244H1/MAT267H1, MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1, PHY250H1, PHY254H1

**Exclusion:**PHY352H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY354H1 - Advanced Classical Mechanics

**Hours:**24L/12T

Symmetry and conservation laws, stability and instability, generalized coordinates, Hamilton's principle, Hamilton's equations, phase space, Liouville's theorem, canonical transformations, Poisson brackets, Noether's theorem.

**Prerequisite:**MAT244H1/MAT267H1, PHY254H1

**Exclusion:**PHY351H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY356H1 - Quantum Mechanics I

**Hours:**24L/12T

The general structure of wave mechanics; eigenfunctions and eigenvalues; operators; orbital angular momentum; spherical harmonics; central potential; separation of variables; hydrogen atom; Dirac notation; operator methods; harmonic oscillator and spin.

**Prerequisite:**MAT223H1/MAT240H1, PHY250H1, PHY256H1/(CHM222H1,CHM223H1)/CHM225Y1, (PHY256H1 recommended)

**Corequisite:**MAT244H1/MAT267H1

**Exclusion:**CHM326H1, PHY355H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY357H1 - Nuclear and Particle Physics

**Hours:**24L/12T

The subatomic particles; nuclei, baryons and mesons, quarks, leptons and bosons; the structure of nuclei and hadronic matter; symmetries and conservation laws; fundamental forces and interactions, electromagnetic, weak, and strong; a selection of other topics: CP violation, nuclear models, standard model, proton decay, supergravity, nuclear and particle astrophysics. This course is not a prerequisite for any PHY400-level course.

**Prerequisite:**PHY356H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY358H1 - Atoms, Molecules and Solids

**Hours:**24L/12T

Quantum theory of atoms, molecules, and solids; variational principle and perturbation theory; hydrogen and helium atoms; exchange and correlation energies; multielectron atoms; simple molecules; bonding and antibonding orbitals; rotation and vibration of molecules; crystal binding; electron in a periodic potential; reciprocal lattice; Bloch's theorem; nearly-free electron model; Kronig-Penney model; energy bands; metals, semiconductors, and insulators; Fermi surfaces.

**Prerequisite:**PHY356H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY371Y1 - Supervised Study in Physics

An individual study program chosen by the student with the advice of, and under the direction of, a staff member. A student may take advantage of this course either to specialize further in a field of interest or to explore interdisciplinary fields not available in the regular syllabus. Consult the department web pages for some possible topics. This course may also be available in the summer. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**Consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies)

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY372H1 - Supervised Study in Physics

An individual study program chosen by the student with the advice of, and under the direction of, a staff member. A student may take advantage of this course either to specialize further in a field of interest or to explore interdisciplinary fields not available in the regular syllabus. Consult the department web site for some possible topics. This course may also be available in the summer. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**Consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies)

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY385H1 - Introductory Optics

**Hours:**24L/20P

An introduction to the physics of light. Topics covered include: electromagnetic waves and propagation of light; the Huygens and Fermat principles; geometrical optics and optical instruments; interference of waves and diffraction; polarization; introduction to photons, lasers, and optical fibers.

**Prerequisite:**PHY250H1, PHY254H1

**Exclusion:**ECE318H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY392H1 - Physics of Climate

**Hours:**24L

This course provides an introduction to climate physics and the earth-atmosphere-ocean system. Topics include solar and terrestrial radiation; global energy balance; radiation laws; radiative transfer; atmospheric structure; convection; the meridional structure of the atmosphere; the general circulation of the atmosphere; the ocean and its circulation; and climate variability.

**Prerequisite:**PHY250H1/PHY252H1, MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY315H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### JPE395H1 - Physics of the Earth

**Hours:**24L

Designed for students interested in the physics of the Earth and the planets. Study of the Earth as a unified dynamic system; determination of major internal divisions in the planet; development and evolution of the Earth's large scale surface features through plate tectonics; the age and thermal history of the planet; Earth's gravitational field and the concept of isostasy; mantle rheology and convection; Earth tides; geodetic measurement techniques, in particular modern space-based techniques.

**Prerequisite:**PHY132H1/PHY152H1/PHY180H1/MIE100H1, MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT291H1/AER210H1, PHY254H1/PHY293H1/MAT244H1/MAT267H1/MAT290H1/MAT292H1

**Exclusion:**PHY359H1, PHY395H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY396Y0 - Research Topic Abroad

Course credit for research or field studies abroad under the supervision of a faculty member. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**At least 8.5 FCEs and no more than 14.0 FCEs

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY397Y0 - Exchange Research Project Abroad

Course credit for research or field studies abroad under the supervision of a faculty or staff member from an exchange institution. Consult the Physics Department web pages for information about opportunities. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**Consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies)

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY398H0 - Research Excursions

An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities/research-excursions-program. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

### PHY398Y0 - Research Excursions

An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities/research-excursions-program. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

### PHY399Y1 - Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities/research-opportunities-program. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

### PHY405H1 - Electronics Lab

**Hours:**12L/36P

Electrical circuits, networks and devices are all-pervasive in the modern world. This laboratory course is an introduction to the world of electronics. Students will learn the joys and perils of electronics, by designing, constructing and debugging circuits and devices. The course will cover topics ranging from filters and operational amplifiers to micro-controllers, and will introduce students to concepts such as impedance, transfer functions, feedback and noise. The course will include lectures, assigned readings, and a final circuit project.

**Prerequisite:**PHY224H1, PHY250H1. PHY405H1 may be taken in third or fourth year

**Exclusion:**PHY305H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY407H1 - Computational Physics

**Hours:**12L/36P

This is an introduction to scientific computing in physics. Students will be introduced to computational techniques used in a range of physics research areas. By considering selected physics topics, students will learn computational methods for function analysis, ODEs, PDEs, eigenvalue problems, non-linear equations and Monte Carlo techniques. A physicist's "computational survival toolkit" will also be developed to introduce students to topics such as command line programming, bash scripting, debugging, solution visualization, computational efficiency and accuracy. The course is based on python and will involve working on a set of computational labs throughout the semester as well as a final project.

**Prerequisite:**PHY224H1/PHY254H1

**Corequisite:**Any third or fourth year course in Physics

**Exclusion:**PHY307H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY408H1 - Time Series Analysis

**Hours:**12L/24P

The analysis of digital sequences; filters; the Fourier Transform; windows; truncation effects; aliasing; auto and cross-correlation; stochastic processes, power spectra; least squares filtering; application to real data series and experimental design.

**Prerequisite:**PHY407H1/PHY224H1/PHY250H1/PHY254H1/PHY324H1. PHY408H1 may be taken in third or fourth year

**Corequisite:**Any third or fourth year lecture course in Physics

**Exclusion:**PHY308H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY424H1 - Advanced Physics Laboratory

**Hours:**72P

Experiments in this course are designed to form a bridge to current experimental research. A wide range of exciting experiments relevant to modern research in physics is available. The laboratory is open from 9 a.m. - 4 p.m., Monday to Friday.

**Prerequisite:**PHY250H1, PHY256H1, PHY324H1

**Exclusion:**PHY326H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY426H1 - Advanced Practical Physics I

**Hours:**72P

This course is a continuation of PHY424H1, but students have more freedom to progressively focus on specific areas of physics, do extended experiments, projects, or computational modules.

**Prerequisite:**PHY424H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY428H1 - Advanced Practical Physics II

**Hours:**72P

This course is a continuation of PHY426H1, but students have more freedom to progressively focus on specific areas of physics, do extended experiments, projects, or computational modules.

**Prerequisite:**PHY426H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY429H1 - Advanced Practical Physics III

**Hours:**72P

This course is a continuation of PHY428H1, but students have more freedom to progressively focus on specific areas of physics, do extended experiments, projects, or computational modules.

**Prerequisite:**PHY428H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY431H1 - Topics in Biological Physics

**Hours:**24L/12T

An introduction to the physical phenomena involved in the biological processes of living cells and complex systems. Models based on physical principles applied to cellular processes will be developed. Biological computational modeling will be introduced.

**Prerequisite:**PHY250H1, PHY252H1/CHM222H1/CHM225Y1, PHY331H1

**Exclusion:**PHY346H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### JPH441H1 - Physical Science in Contemporary Society

**Hours:**24L

Complex nature of the scientific method; connection between theory, concepts and experimental data; insufficiency of reductionism; characteristics of pathological and pseudo-science; public perception and misperception of science; science and public policy; ethical issues; trends in modern science.

**Prerequisite:**PHY224H1/PHY250H1/PHY252H1/PHY254H1/PHY256H1/ENV235H1, or by permission of the instructor.

**Exclusion:**PHY341H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Humanities

**Breadth Requirements:**Society and its Institutions (3)

### PHY450H1 - Relativistic Electrodynamics

**Hours:**24L/12T

An introduction to relativistic electrodynamics. Topics include: special relativity, four-vectors and tensors, relativistic dynamics from the Principle of Stationary Action and Maxwell's equations in Lorentz covariant form. Noether's theorem for fields and the energy-momentum tensor. Fields of moving charges and electromagnetic radiation: retarded potential, Lienard-Wiechert potentials, multipole expansion, radiation reaction.

**Prerequisite:**PHY350H1

**Exclusion:**PHY353H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY452H1 - Statistical Mechanics

**Hours:**24L/12T

Classical and quantum statistical mechanics of noninteracting systems; the statistical basis of thermodynamics; ensembles, partition function; thermodynamic equilibrium; stability and fluctuations; formulation of quantum statistics; theory of simple gases; ideal Bose and Fermi systems.

**Prerequisite:**PHY252H1, PHY356H1

**Exclusion:**PHY480H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY454H1 - Continuum Mechanics

**Hours:**24L/12T

The theory of continuous matter, including solid and fluid mechanics.Topics include the continuum approximation, dimensional analysis, stress, strain, the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, vorticity, waves, instabilities, convection and turbulence.

**Prerequisite:**PHY254H1, MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1, APM346H1/APM351Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY459H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY456H1 - Quantum Mechanics II

**Hours:**24L/12T

Quantum dynamics in Heisenberg and Schrdinger pictures; WKB approximation; variational method; time-independent perturbation theory; spin; addition of angular momentum; time-dependent perturbation theory; scattering.

**Prerequisite:**PHY356H1

**Exclusion:**PHY457H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY460H1 - Nonlinear Physics

**Hours:**24L/12T

The theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications to many areas of physics. Topics include stability, bifurcations, chaos, universality, maps, strange attractors and fractals. Geometric, analytical and computational methods will be developed.

**Prerequisite:**PHY354H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY471Y1 - Supervised Study in Physics

An individual study program chosen by the student with the advice of, and under the direction of, a staff member. A student may take advantage of this course either to specialize further in a field of interest or to explore interdisciplinary fields not available in the regular syllabus. Consult the department web pages for some possible topics. This course may also be available in the summer. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**Consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies).

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY472H1 - Supervised Study in Physics

An individual study program chosen by the student with the advice of, and under the direction of, a staff member. A student may take advantage of this course either to specialize further in a field of interest or to explore interdisciplinary fields not available in the regular syllabus. Consult the department web pages for some possible topics. This course may also be available in the summer. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**Consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies).

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY478H1 - Undergraduate Research Project

An individual experimental or theoretical research project undertaken with the advice of, and under the direction of, a staff member. A student may take advantage of this course either to specialize further in a field of interest or to explore independent research. Consult the department web site for some possible topics. This course may also be available in the summer. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**Consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies)

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY479Y1 - Undergraduate Research Project

An individual experimental or theoretical research project undertaken with the advice of, and under the direction of, a faculty member. A student may take advantage of this course either to specialize further in a field of interest or to explore independent research. Consult the department web site for possible topics. This course may also be available in the summer. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

**Prerequisite:**Consult the Physics Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies)

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY483H1 - Relativity Theory I

**Hours:**24L/12T

Basis of Einstein's theory: differential geometry, tensor analysis, gravitational physics leading to General Relativity. Theory starting from solutions of Schwarzschild, Kerr, etc.

**Prerequisite:**PHY350H1, PHY354H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY484H1 - Relativity Theory II

**Hours:**24L

Applications of General Relativity to Astrophysics and Cosmology. Introduction to black holes, large-scale structure of the universe.

**Prerequisite:**PHY483H1

**Recommended Preparation:**APM346H1/APM351Y1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY485H1 - Laser Physics

**Hours:**24L

This course, which is intended to be an introduction to research in optical sciences, covers the statistics of optical fields and the physics of lasers. Topics include the principles of laser action, laser cavities, properties of laser radiation and its propagation, the diffraction of light, and spatial and temporal coherence.

**Prerequisite:**PHY350H1, PHY358H1, PHY385H1/ECE318H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY487H1 - Condensed Matter Physics

**Hours:**24L

Introduction to foundational concepts of condensed matter physics in the solid state. Main topics to be covered: crystal structure, reciprocal lattice, x-ray diffraction, crystal binding, lattice vibrations, phonons and electrons in solids, Fermi surfaces, energy bands, semiconductors and magnetism. Special topics to be surveyed: superconductivity and nanoelectronic transport.

**Prerequisite:**PHY250H1, PHY252H1, PHY356H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY489H1 - Introduction to High Energy Physics

**Hours:**24L

This course introduces the basics of fundamental particles and the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces that govern their interactions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Topics include relativistic kinematics, conservation laws, particle decays and scattering processes, with an emphasis on the techniques used for calculating experimental observables.

**Prerequisite:**PHY354H1, PHY356H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY491H1 - Current Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

**Hours:**24L/24T

Review of conventional, textbook quantum mechanics. Formal measurement theory and wave function collapse; quantum states and nonseparability, violation of local causality; Bell theorems; quantum tricks; decoherence and the emergence of classical behaviour. Hidden variables; deBroglie-Bohm theory and generalizations; many-worlds interpretation and other theories of beables. Consistent histories approach of Omnes and Gell-Mann and Hartle; nature of True and Reliable statements.

**Prerequisite:**PHY456H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### PHY492H1 - Advanced Atmospheric Physics

**Hours:**24L/12T

A preparatory course for research in experimental and theoretical atmospheric physics. Content will vary from year to year. Themes may include techniques for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere and surface; theoretical atmosphere-ocean dynamics; the physics of clouds, precipitation, and convection in the Earth's atmosphere.

**Prerequisite:**PHY250H1, MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT257Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY498H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

### JPE493H1 - Seismology

**Hours:**24L

Why do earthquakes occur and how are they related to tectonic motion of the Earth's surface? What is the physics behind the propagation of seismic waves through the Earth, and how can it be used to determine the internal structures of the Earth? This introductory course is aimed at understanding the physics behind seismic wave propagation, as well as asymptotic and numerical solutions to the elastodynamic equation. Travel time and amplitude of seismic waves are discussed based on seismic ray theory, while numerical methods are introduced to obtain accurate solutions to more complex velocity structures. Seismic tomographic methods, including their applications to hydrocarbon reservoir imaging, are also covered.

**Prerequisite:**JPE395H1, APM346H1/APM351Y1/MAT351Y1

**Exclusion:**PHY493H1

**Recommended Preparation:**ESS345H1

**Distribution Requirements:**Science

**Breadth Requirements:**The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)